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Article #    Article Title, Authors & Abstract (Vol. 2, Iss. 1, Jan-2012)           Pages

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    1.

STATE OF ART: HAND BIOMETRIC ,     1-9

Sarâh BENZIANE and Abdelkader BENYETTOU

Abstract
This paper present a state of art about biometric hand, different techniques used.Biometric is essentially used to avoid risks of password easy to find or Stoll; with as slogan save Time and Attendance. We can note that biometrics is a true alternative to the passwords and other identifiers to make safe the access controls. It makes it possible to check that the user is well the person who it claims to be.


    2.

USING DYNAMIC DUAL KEYS ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM AS PARTIAL                10-18

ENCRYPTION FOR A REAL-TIME DIGITAL VIDEO

Abdul Monem S. Rahma and Basima Z.Yacob

Abstract

Advances in digital video transmission have increased in the past few years. Security and privacy issues of the transmitted data have become an important concern in multimedia technology. Digital video stream is quite different from traditional textual data because interframe dependencies exist in digital video. Special digital video encryption algorithms are required because of their special characteristics, such as coding structure, large amount of data and real-time constraints. This paper presents a real-time partial encryption to digital video technique depends on Dynamic Dual Key Encryption Algorithm Based on joint Galois Fields which is fast enough to meet the real-time requirements with  high level of security. In this technique the I-frame (Intra-frame) of the digital video scene is extracted and decomposed the color picture into its three color channels: luma channel (Y) and two chrominance channels Cb and Cr, with note that the frames of digital video is in YCbCr color system, the Dynamic Dual Key Encryption Algorithm Based on joint Galois Fields is applied to the Y channel. The encryption technique achieves best timing results, and it provides high level of security by its great resistant against brute force attacks.


    3.

DESIGN AND PROTOTYPING OF A MINIATURIZED SENSOR FOR                        19-26

NON-INVASIVE MONITORING OF OXYGEN SATURATION IN BLOOD

Roberto Marani, Gennaro Gelao and Anna Gina Perri

Abstract
In this paper a new sensor for the non-invasive monitoring of the oxygen saturation in blood has been designed, realized and tested to obtain an ultra-small device having very high noise immunity. This goal has been reached by using a particular integrated circuit, the PsoC (Programmable System on Chip), which integrates two programmable arrays, one analogue and one digital, to obtain a device with very large capabilities. We have configured the PsoC and developed the electronic interfaces. The proposed design allows the acquisition of the continuous component of the signal and the data elaboration has been done in place using a local CPU, without requiring to pass data to an external computer.


    4.

EFFECTS OF PGPR ON GROWTH AND NUTRIENTS UPTAKE OF TOMATO   27-31

Shahram Sharafzadeh

Abstract
Tomato is one of the most popular garden vegetable in the world. Tomatoes have high values in Vitamin A and C and are naturally low in calories. Inoculation with plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) has been attributed to the production of plant growth regulators at the root interface, which stimulate root development and result in better absorption of water and nutrients from the soil. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of some PGPR on growth and nutrients uptake of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum
Red Cherry) plants. Seven treatments were used for bacteria (Pseudomonas, Azotobacter, Azosprillum, Pseudomonas + Azotobacter, Pseudomonas + Azosprillum, Azotobacter + Azosprillum and Pseudomonas + Azotobacter + Azosprillum) which were compared to control. Plants were cut at prebloom stage. Maximum level of shoot fresh weight was shown on Azotobacter + Azosprillum, Pseudomonas + Azotobacter + Azosprillum and Azosprillum treatments which significantly differed from other treatments. Maximum level of root fresh weight was achived in Azotobacter + Azosprillum, Pseudomonas + Azotobacter + Azosprillum and  Azotobacter treatments which significantly differed from other treatments. Maximum level of shoot and root dry weights were achieved on Azotobacter + Azosprillum and Pseudomonas + Azotobacter + Azosprillum treatments. Minimum level of shoot and root dry weights were obtained in Pseudomonas + Azosprillum. Maximum root length was shown on Azotobacter + Azosprillum which significantly differed from other treatments. The highest amount of N, P and K were achieved on Pseudomonas + Azotobacter + Azosprillum treatment and the lowest amount was shown on Pseudomonas + Azotobacter treatment. Maximum level of Ca and Mg were obtained on Pseudomonas + Azotobacter and Pseudomonas + Azosprillum treatments which significantly differ from other treatments.


    5.

THE APPLICATION OF PSO TO HYBRID ACTIVE POWER FILTER DESIGN   32-42

FOR 3 PHASE 4-WIRE SYSTEM WITH BALANCED & UNBALANCED LOADS

B. Suresh Kumar, K. Ramesh Reddy & S. Archana

Abstract
This paper presents a application of PSO to Hybrid active power filter used to compensate for total harmonic distortion in three-phase four-wire systems. The shunt active filter employs a simple method for the calculation of the reference compensation current based on Fast Fourier Transform. The presented Shunt Active Power filter is able to operate in balanced, unbalanced and Variable load conditions. Classic filters may not have satisfactory performance in fast varying conditions. But auto tuned active power filter gives better results for harmonic minimization, reactive power compensation and power factor improvement. The proposed auto tuned shunt active filter maintains the THD well within IEEE-519 standards. The proposed methodology is extensively tested for wide range of different Loads with Improved dynamic behavior of shunt active power filter using PSO to Hybrid active power filter. The results are found to be quite satisfactory to mitigate harmonic Distortions, reactive power compensation and power factor correction thereby increase in Power Quality improvement and reduction in %THD.


    6.

A SURVEY OF COUPLING MEASUREMENT IN OBJECT ORIENTED SYSTEMS     43-50

V. S. Bidve and Akhil Khare

Abstract
Coupling measurement is a focus of study for many of the software professionals from last few years. Object-oriented programming is an efficient programming technique for programmers because of its features like reusability, data abstraction etc. Coupling is a very impotent factor in object-oriented programming for software quality measurement and used as predictors of software quality attributes such as fault proneness, impact analysis, ripple effects of changes, changeability etc. Many researchers have worked on coupling measurement and found various dimensions of coupling. Researchers have also worked on various aspects of coupling like static coupling measurement, dynamic coupling measurement, class level coupling, object level coupling etc. But still there is no standardization in the field of coupling measurement which is accepted worldwide. As a result of this it is very difficult to select any existing measure which obtain clear picture of state-of-art of coupling measurement for object-oriented systems. This paper analyses some terminologies of coupling measurement proposed earlier and discusses usefulness of each.


    7.

THE COMPUTER ASSISTED EDUCATION AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE   51-61

ACADEMIC SUCCESS OF STUDENTS IN THE LIGHTING TECHNIQUE AND INDOOR

INSTALLATION PROJECT COURSE

Ismail Kayri, Muhsin Tunay Gençoglu and Murat Kayri

Abstract
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects on students’ academic success of a visual didactic material developed in a computing environment which is believed it will enlighten the sudents during the process of completing the project and the explanation of  “the Lighting Technique and Internal Installation Project” course that is taught in the curriculum of the electrical and electronic parts from institutions who are given formal and widely education such as Technical Education and Engineering Faculties, Vocational Colleges, Public Education Centers, Indrustrial Vocational High schools which are the bakcbone of vocational and technical education. In addition, the use of the educational software as in this area as a didactic material that is developed for the mentioned course is determined as a subsequent goal. To test the effectiveness of the developed educational software in the learning process there are two measurement tools for the cognitive dimension developed according experts and accordant findings of these measurement tools the effectiveness is examined.


    8.

FRACTAL CHARACTERIZATION OF EVOLVING TRAJECTORIES OF DUFFING   62-72

OSCILLATOR

Salau, T. A.O. and Ajide, O.O.

Abstract
This study utilised fractal disk dimension characterization to investigate the time evolution of the Poincare sections of a harmonically excited Duffing oscillator. Multiple trajectories of the Duffing oscillator were solved simultaneously using Runge-Kutta constant step algorithms from set of randomly selected very close initial conditions for three different cases. These initial conditions were from a very small phase space that approximates geometrically a line. The attractor highest estimated fractal disk dimension was first recorded at the end of 15, 22, and 5 excitation periods for Case-1, Case-2 and Case-3 respectively. The corresponding scatter phase plots for Case-1 and Case-2 agreed qualitatively with stroboscopic-ally obtained Poincare sections found in the literature. The study thus established sensitivity of Duffing to initial conditions when driven by different combination of damping coefficient, excitation amplitude and frequency. It however showed a faster, accurate and reliable alternative computational method for generating its Poincare sections.


    9.

SANKEERNA: A LINEAR TIME, SYNTHESIS AND ROUTING AWARE,   73-89

CONSTRUCTIVE VLSI PLACER TO ACHIEVE SYNERGISTIC DESIGN FLOW

Santeppa Kambham1 and Siva Rama Krishna Prasad Kolli

Abstract
Standard cell placement is a NP complete open problem. The main objectives of a placement algorithm are to minimize chip area and the total wire length of all the nets. Due to interconnect dominance, Deep Sub Micron VLSI design flow does not converge leading to iterations between synthesis and layout steps.   We present a new heuristic placement algorithm called Sankeerna, which tightly couples synthesis and routing and produces compact routable designs with minimum area and delay. We tested Sankeerna on several benchmarks using 0.13 micron, 8 metal layer, standard cell technology library. There is an average improvement of 46.2% in delay, 8.8% in area and 114.4% in wire length when compared to existing placement algorithms. In this paper, we described the design and implementation of Sankeerna algorithm and its performance is illustrated through a worked out example.


    10.

A NEW VARIANT OF SUBSET-SUM CRYPTOSYSTEM OVER RSA   90-97

Sonal Sharma, Saroj Hiranwal, Prashant Sharma

Abstract
RSA is an algorithm for public-key cryptography that is based on the presumed difficulty of factoring large integers, the factoring problem. RSA stands for Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir and Leonard, who first publicly described it in 1978. A user of RSA creates and then publishes the product of two large prime numbers, along with an auxiliary value, as their public key. The prime factors must be kept secret. In RSA if one can factor modulus into its prime numbers then the private key is also detected and hence the security of the cryptosystem is broken. The Subset-Sum cryptosystem (Knapsack Cryptosystem) is also an asymmetric cryptographic technique. The Merkle-Hellman system is based on the subset sum problem (a special case of the knapsack problem): An instance of the Subset Sum problem is a pair (S, t), where S = {x1 , x2 ,  ..., xn} is a set of positive integers and t (the target) is a positive integer. The decision problem asks for a subset of S whose sum is as large as possible, but not larger than t. This problem is NP-complete. However, if the set of numbers (called the knapsack) is super increasing, that is, each element of the set is greater than the sum of all the numbers before it; the problem is easy and solvable in polynomial time with a simple greedy algorithm. So in this paper we present a new algorithm (Modified Subset-Sum cryptosystem over RSA) which is secure against Mathematical attack, Brute-force attack, Factorization attack and Chosen-cipher-text attack on RSA as well as Shamir attacks. This paper also presents comparison between Modified Subset - Sum Cryptosystem and RSA cryptosystems in respect of security and performance.


    11.

A COMPACT DUAL BAND PLANAR RMSA FOR WLAN/WIMAX APPLICATIONS     98-104

C. R. Byrareddy, N. C. Easwar Reddy, C. S. Sridhar

Abstract
Presentation of a compact dual band planar rectangular microstrip antenna (RMSA) antenna for a WLAN (2.4GHz IEEE standards 802.11b/g)/WiMAX(2.6GHz IEEE standards802.16e)applications. The two resonant  modes of the presented RMSA antenna are associated with various length and width of the planar strips  in which  a centre strip contributes for the lower  resonant frequency 2.4GHz(2.26- 2.4GHz with impedance bandwidth 240MHz)  and  two lateral strips contributes for the higher resonant frequency2.8GHz(2.73-2.95GHz with impedance bandwidth220MHz). By proper adjustment of the coupling between the two lateral strips and embedded centre strip enables the operation of dual band with a -10dB return loss, a near directive radiation pattern and a good antenna gain with sufficient bandwidth. The antenna is simulated using Ansoft HFSS and fabricated on an FR4 substrate with dielectric constant 4.4 and thickness 1.6mm occupies an area of 65mm x50mm.The simulation results are found to be in good agreement with the measured results. The proposed antenna is suitable for wireless communication applications requiring a small antenna.


    12.

VLSI ARCHITECTURE FOR LOW POWER VARIABLE LENGTH ENCODING  105-120

AND DECODING FOR IMAGE PROCESSING APPLICATIONS

Vijaya Prakash. A.M & K.S. Gurumurthy

Abstract
The image data compression has been an active research area for image processing over the last decade [1] and has been used in a variety of applications. This paper investigates the implementation of Low Power VLSI architecture for image compression, which uses Variable Length Coding method to compress JPEG signals [1]. The architecture is proposed for the quantized DCT output [5]. The proposed architecture consists of three optimized blocks, viz, Zigzag scanning, Run-length coding and Huffman coding [17]. In the proposed architecture, Zigzag scanner uses two RAM memories in parallel to make the scanning faster. The Run-length coder in the architecture, counts the number of intermediate zeros in between the successive non-zero DCT coefficients unlike the traditional run- length coder which counts the repeating string of coefficients to compress data [20]. The complexity of the Huffman coder is reduced by making use of a lookup table formed by arranging the {run, value} combinations in the order of decreasing probabilities with associated variable length codes [14]
. The VLSI architecture of the design is implemented [12] using Verilog  HDL with Low Power approches  . The proposed hardware architecture for image compression was synthesized using RTL complier and it was mapped using 90nm standard cells. The Simulation is done using Modelsim. The synthesis is done using RTL compiler  from CADENCE. The back end design like Layout is done using IC Compiler. Power consumptions of variable length encoder and decoder are limited to 0.798mW and 0.884mW with minimum area.   The Experimental results confirms that 53% power saving is achieved in the dynamic power of huffman decoding [6] by including the lookup table approach and also a 27% of power saving is achieved in the RL-Huffman encoder [8].


    13.

VERIFICATION ANALYSIS OF AHB-LITE PROTOCOL WITH COVERAGE              121-128

Richa Sinha, Akhilesh Kumar and Archana Kumari Sinha

Abstract
The SoC design faces a gap between the production capabilities and time to market pressures. The design space, grows with the improvements in the production capabilities in terms of amount of time to design a system that utilizes those capabilities. On the other hand shorter product life cycles are forcing an aggressive reduction of the time-to-market. Fast simulation capabilities are required for coping with the immense design space that is to be explored; these are especially needed during early stages of the design. This need has pushed the development of transaction level models, which are abstract models that execute dramatically faster than synthesizable models. The pressure for fast executing models extends especially to the frequently used and reused communication libraries. The presents paper describes the system level modelling of the Advanced High-performance Bus Lite (AHB-Lite) subset of AHB which part of the Advanced Microprocessor Bus Architecture (AMBA). The work on AHB-Lite slave model, at different test cases, describing their simulation speed. Accuracy is built on the rich semantic support of a standard language SystemVerilog on the relevant simulator Riviera has been highlighted.


    14.

IMPACT OF VOLTAGE REGULATORS IN UNBALANCED RADIAL  129-138

DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS USING PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION

Puthireddy Umapathi Reddy, Sirigiri Sivanagaraju

Abstract
In rural power systems, the Automatic Voltage Regulators (AVRs) help to reduce energy loss and to improve the power quality of electric utilities, compensating the voltage drops through distribution lines. This paper presents selection of optimal location and selection of tap setting for voltage regulators in Unbalanced Radial Distribution Systems (URDS). PSO is used for selecting the voltage regulator tap position in an unbalanced radial distribution system. An algorithm makes the initial selection, installation and tap position setting of the voltage regulators to provide a good voltage profile and to minimize power loss along the distribution network. The effectiveness of the proposed method is illustrated on a test system of 25 bus unbalanced radial distribution systems.


    15.

STUDY ON PERFORMANCE OF CHEMICALLY STABILIZED EXPANSIVE SOIL    139-148

P. VenkaraMuthyalu, K. Ramu and G.V.R. Prasada Raju

Abstract
Expansive soils, such as black cotton soils, are basically susceptible to detrimental volumetric changes, with changes in moisture. This behaviour of soil is attributed to the presence of mineral montmorillonite, which has an expanding lattice. Understanding the behaviour of expansive soil and adopting the appropriate control measures have been great task for the geotechnical engineers. Extensive research is going on to find the solutions to black cotton soils.  There have been many methods available to controlling the expansive nature of the soils. Treating the expansive soil with electrolytes is one of the techniques to improve the behaviour of the expansive ground. Hence, in the present work, experimentation is carried-out to investigate the influence of electrolytes i.e., potassium chloride, calcium chloride and ferric chloride on the properties of expansive soil.


    16.

DESIGNING AN AUTOMATED SYSTEM FOR PLANT LEAF RECOGNITION          149-158

Jyotismita Chaki and Ranjan Parekh

Abstract
This paper proposes an automated system for recognizing plant species based on leaf images. Plant leaf images corresponding to three plant types, are analyzed using three different shape modelling techniques, the first two based on the Moments-Invariant (M-I) model and the Centroid-Radii (C-R) model and the third based on a proposed technique of Binary-Superposition (B-S). For the M-I model the first four central normalized moments have been considered. For the C-R model an edge detector has been used to identify the boundary of the leaf shape and 36 radii at 10 degree angular separation have been used to build the shape vector. The proposed approach consists of comparing binary versions of the leaf images through superposition and using the sum of non-zero pixel values of the resultant as the feature vector. The data set for experimentations consists of 180 images divided into training and testing sets and comparison between them is done using Manhattan, Euclidean and intersection norms. Accuracies obtained using the proposed technique is seen to be an improvement over the M-I and C-R based techniques, and comparable to the best figures reported in extant literature.


    17.

FUZZY CONTROL OF SQUIRREL CAGE INDUCTION MACHINE WIND 159-167

GENERATION SYSTEM

B. Ravichandra Rao and R. Amala Lolly

Abstract
Artificial intelligence techniques, such as fuzzy logic, neural network and genetic algorithm are recently showing a lot of promise in the application of power electronic systems. This Paper describes the control strategy development, design and of a fuzzy logic based variable speed wind generation system. In this work cage type induction generator and double-sided PWM converters are used. The fuzzy logic based control of the system helps to optimize the efficiency and enhance the performance. The generation system uses three fuzzy logic controllers. The first fuzzy controller tracks the generator speed with the wind velocity to extract maximum power. The second fuzzy logic controller programs machine flux for light load efficiency improvement. The third fuzzy logic controller provides robust speed control against wind vortex and turbine oscillatory torque. The complete control system has been developed, analyzed, and simulated in Matlab.


    18.

AN ADVANCED WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK FOR LANDSLIDE 168-178

DETECTION

Romen Kumar.M & Hemalatha   Complaint Received



    19.

EVALUATION OF PHONETIC MATCHING APPROACHES FOR HINDI 179-189

AND MARATHI: INFORMATION RETRIEVAL

Sandeep Chaware and Srikantha Rao

Abstract
In multilingual environment, the phonetic matching plays an important role in various aspects. Basically, the techniques for phonetic matching are useful for information retrieval when text is not clear or not interpreted fully. Irrespective of correct form of the keyword, the entered keywords for information retrieval should matched phonetically and results should be displayed. Many approaches have been proposed for phonetic matching such as use of text-to-phonetic system in translator-based system, use of operators such as MLLike, code-based approaches or language-specific phonetic-rule based approaches etc. Each approach is having limitations. In this paper, we tried to find some of the limitations of using those existing approaches for Hindi and Marathi languages and proposed some solutions for phonetic matching used for information retrieval.


    20.

DESIGN OF ENERGY-EFFICIENT FULL ADDER USING HYBRID-CMOS 190-202

LOGIC STYLE

Mohammad Shamim Imtiaz, Md Abdul Aziz Suzon, Mahmudur Rahman

Abstract
We present new designs for full adder featuring hybrid-CMOS design style. The quest to achieve a good-drivability, noise-robustness and low energy operations guided our research to explore hybrid- CMOS style design. Hybrid-CMOS design style utilizes various CMOS logic style circuits to build new full adders with desired performance. We also classify hybrid-CMOS full adders into three broad categories based upon their structure. Using this categorization, many full adder designs can be conceived. The new full adder is based on XOR-XOR Hybrid CMOS model that gives XOR and XOR full swing output simultaneously. This circuit’s outperforms its counterparts showing 4%-31% improvement in power dissipation and delay. The output stage also provides good driving capability and no buffer connection is needed between cascaded stages. During our experiments, we found out that many of the previously reported adders suffered from the problems of low swing and high noise when operated at low supply voltages. The proposed full adders are energy efficient and outperform several standard full adders without trading of driving capabilities and reliabilities. The new full-adder circuits successfully operate at low voltages with excellent signal integrity and driving capability. The new adders displayed better performance as compared to the standards full adder. The problem we face during the experiment leads us to different zones where efficient circuit can be developed using this new full adder.


    21.

EXAM ONLINE: E-ENABLING EXTENDED LEARNING, ANSWER AND ESSAY 203-209

EXAMINATIONS

Abdulghader. A. Ahmed, Dalbir S., Ibrahim M.

Abstract
This study reviews the determinant factors for increased motivation of online course. This development in Information and communication technologies (ICT) has leads to major changes in learning-teaching environment. However, teacher’s enthusiasm, the roles of instructors warm and friendliness among teaches and students are one of the most important factors for motivation of online course. Students reflections about flexibility are main factors of motivation for online courses independence and freedom of learning can create motivation in an online learning environment. Relevance of course materials, well-planned and organized class sessions, students’ active involvement in classroom learning, use of various instructional techniques and illustration with clear examples motivate the students. However, communication and collaboration between students are important factors as they determine the conduciveness of online learning environment/adaptation to technical infrastructure, process of the course and measurement evaluation during online course studies.


    22.

NOISE MODELING OF SIGE HBT BASED ON THE CHARACTERIZATION OF 210-219

EXTRACTED Y- AND Z- PARAMETERS FOR HF APPLICATIONS

Pradeep Kumar and R.K. Chauhan

Abstract
In last several decades silicon-germanium (SiGe) technology has come into the global electronics marketplace. Commercial SiGe HBT facilitates transceiver designs and recommends transistor-level performance metrics which are competitive with the best III-V technologies (InP or GaAs), while sustaining strict fabrication compatibility with high yielding, low-cost, Si CMOS foundry processes on large wafers. This work depicts the complete an ample process to model the noise characteristics of a high frequency 0.1 µm SiGe HBT based on a direct parameter extraction technique. A modeling and characterization of noise parameters of Silicon-Germanium Hetrojunction Bipolar transistor is examined in this issue. Initially, Noise in SiGe Hetrojunction Bipolar Transistors is conferred in detail. Later, a linear noisy two-port network and its equivalent circuit model are presented for extracting and characterizing the noise parameters, for example, noise resistance (Rn), optimum source admittance (GSopt, BSopt) and minimum noise figure (NFmin) along with its modeling significance. In next step, a novel idea that explains the impact of Ge concentration on these noise parameters is also portrayed. The noise characteristics of the SiGe HBTs are advanced to those of III–V semiconductor devices. A corroboration of objective validity of the noise modeling scheme and the extraction noise parameter is accomplished in the form of Y-, and Z-parameters. These results have been validated using a viable numerical device simulator ATLAS from Silvaco International


    23.

DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF NORTH INDIAN OCEAN SEAWATER AT 5 GHZ 220-226

A.S. Joshi, S.S. Deshpande, M.L.Kurtadikar

Abstract
This study presents dielectric properties of North Indian Ocean seawater. In all, fourteen seawater samples are collected from Arabian Sea, Lakshadweep Sea, Tip of Bay of Bengal Sea, deep Indian Ocean and Equatorial region. The Von Hipple method is used to measure dielectric properties, both real part å' and imaginary å'', at 5 GHz and 30 °C using automated C-Band microwave bench set up. The dielectric constant å' and dielectric loss å'' are calculated using least square fitting technique. The salinity measurement of seawater samples are done on autosalinometer. Making use of salinity values of all samples and for 5 GHz and 30 °C, static dielectric constant and dielectric loss are estimated by Klein-Swift model and Ellison et al. model. Experimental and theoretical results are compared. This study emphasizes latitude and longitudinal variations of salinity and dielectric properties. The laboratory data obtained are significant for microwave remote sensing applications in physical oceanography.


    24.

AN EFFICIENT DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR DETECTION OF 227-240

GLAUCOMA IN FUNDUS IMAGES USING ANFIS

S.Kavitha, K.Duraiswamy

Abstract
This paper proposes a computer aided decision support system for an automated detection of glaucoma in monocular fundus images. Identification of Glaucoma using fundus images involves the measurement of the size, shape of the Optic cup and Neuroretinal rim. Optic Cup detection is a challenging task because of the interweavement of cup with the blood vessels. A new color model technique based on pallor in fundus images using K means clustering is proposed to differentiate between the Optic cup to disc boundary. The method differs by initial optic cup region detection followed by the erasure of blood vessels. In addition to the shape based features, textural features are extracted to better characterize the pathological subjects. Optimal set of features selected by Genetic algorithm are fed as input to Adaptive Neuro fuzzy inference system for classification of images into normal, suspect and abnormal categories. The method has been evaluated on 550 images comprising normal and glaucomatous images.  The performance of the proposed technique is compared with Neural Network and SVM Classifier in terms of classification accuracy and convergence time. Experimental results shows that the features used are clinically significant for the accurate detection of glaucoma.


    25.

STEP-HEIGHT MEASUREMENT OF SURFACE FUNCTIONALIZED 241-248

MICROMACHINED MICROCANTILEVER USING SCANNING WHITE LIGHT

INTERFEROMETRY

Anil Sudhakar Kurhekar and P. R. Apte

Abstract
Micro-cantilever arrays with different dimensions are fabricated by micromachining technique onto silicon <1 0 0> substrate. These sputtered Gold-Coated micro-cantilevers were later surface functionalized. Scanning Electron Microscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy and Optical SWLI using LASER probe are employed to characterize the morphology and image measurement of the micro- cantilever arrays, respectively. Compared with conventional AFM and SPM measurement technique, the proposed method has demonstrated sufficient flexibility and reliability. The experimental results have been analyzed and presented in this paper for MEMS Micro-cantilevers. The scanning White Light Interferometry based two point high resolution optical method is presented for characterizing Micro-cantilevers and other MEMS micro-structures. The repeatable error and the repeatable precision produced in the proposed image measurement method is nanometre confirmable. In this piece of work, we investigate the micro-structure fabrication and image measurement of Length, Width and Step-Height of micro-cantilever arrays fabricated using bulk micromachining technique onto Silicon <100> substrate
.


    26.

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON FOUR STROKE CERAMIC 249-257

HEATER SURFACE IGNITION C.I. ENGINE USING DIFFERENT BLENDS OF

ETHYL ALCOHOL

R.Rama Udaya Marthandan, N.Sivakumar, B. Durga Prasad

Abstract
In this tehehtelkdaFHBK MNGVH CYU      THTEHTIEHteteknpaper  an experimental investigation  on the performance of  surface  ignition  ceramic heater four stroke CI engine  fueled  with pure diesel(B0D100E0) and ethanol-diesel  blends  containing  10%,20%,25% and 30% by volume of ethanol   are  evaluated.  n-butanol (B) additive is used  to  solubility  of ethanol(E)  in diesel(D), that acts as a bridging  agent  through  molecular compatibility  and bonding  to produce a homogeneous blend.The ethanol – diesel fuel affects blend stability, viscosity, lubricity, corrosiveness and safety.The  tests are carried  out on 10HP ceramic  heater  surface ignition single cylinder diesel engine  under  steady  state  operating  conditions.The engine is run at various  speeds  of 1250rpm and1500 rpm.The  relevant  parameters such as brake thermal efficiency(BTE), brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and emisions are calculated for pure diesel and ethanol-diesel blends by B5D85E10, B5D75E20, B5D70E25and B5D65E30.The Partially Stabilized Zirconia(PSZ) ceramic heater is used to reduce the emissions by 220 ppm of NOx, under half load for the blends of B5D85E10 gives minimum CO emissions and unburned HC emissions by 24 ppm  from the engine and improve engine output behavior to 2%.


    27.

PERFORMANCE VERIFICATION OF DC-DC BUCK CONVERTER USING 258-268

SLIDING MODE CONTROLLER FOR COMPARISON WITH THE EXISTING

CONTROLLERS - A THEORETICAL APPROACH

Shelgaonkar (Bindu) Arti Kamalakar, N. R. Kulkarni

Abstract
In recent electronic applications the variable DC power supply is derived with light weight, occupying less size using 100 kHz switching frequency. When the frequency is high, the load experiences practically uninterrupted DC voltage. According to need of application buck converter is considered for analysis.  It is observed that nature of DC- DC converter is nonlinear and time variant systems, and does not lend them to the application of linear control theory. The performance of buck converter has been studied and is undertaken for their theoretical verification, graphical representation and Matlab simulation. From the linear controller PI, PID is considered and non linear controller sliding mode control is taken as control method. The paper work will highlights nonlinear aspects of buck converter, non linear controller like sliding mode controller and hybrid type of controller SMC PID. This will also focuses the benefits of non linear control.


    28.

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF DS-CDMA SYSTEM USING MATLAB 269-281

Athar Ravish Khan

Abstract
The author evaluated the performance of synchronous DS-CDMA systems over multipath fading channel and AWGN Channel. The synchronous DS-CDMA system is well known for eliminating the effects of multiple access interference (MAI) which limits the capacity and degrades the BER performance of the system. This paper investigated the bit error rate (BER) performance of a synchronous DS-CDMA system over AWGN and Rayleigh channel, which is affected by the different number of users, as well as different types spreading codes. The promising simulation results explore the comparative study of different DS-CDMA system parameter and showed the possibility of applying this system to the wideband channel. Different MATLAB functions and MATLAB program segments are explained for the simulation of DS-CDMA system.


    29.

RECENT PHILOSOPHIES OF AGC OF A HYDRO-THERMAL SYSTEM IN 282-288

DEREGULATED ENVIRONMENT

L. ShanmukhaRao1, N.Venkata Ramana

Abstract
 In restructured power system, engineering aspects of planning and operation have to be reformulated although essentials ideas remain same. With emergency of distinct identities of GENCO’s, TRANSCO’s, DISCO’s, and  the ISO’s many of the ancillary services of the vertically integrated utility will have a different role to play and hence have to be modified differently. Among these, ancillary services are, “the automatic generation control (AGC)”.An attempt is made in this paper to present critical literature review and an up-to-date and exhaustive bibliography on the AGC of a hydro thermal system in deregulated environment. Various control aspects concerning the AGC problem have been highlighted.


    30.

DYNAMIC ROUTING SCHEME IN ALL-OPTICAL NETWORK USING 289-298

RESOURCE ADAPTIVE ROUTING SCHEME

S. Suryanarayana, K.Ravindra, K. Chennakesava Reddy

Abstract
With the increasing demand for high data transfer rate, the communication is getting new developments. For progressive data transfer at high data rate services, the means of communication has now taken high offering bandwidth architecture such as optical networks. In optical networks the mode of communication is completely an optical medium and data are transferred from various nodes to reach to the destination via optical routers. Though these networks have high bandwidth compatibility they offer heavy traffic congestion due to non-linear traffics resulting in degraded quality services. In this paper we present an adaptive methodology towards developing routing scheme in optical network based on queue based mechanism at wavelength router for comparatively higher offering quality of services
.


    31.

ENHANCED BANDWIDTH UTILIZATION IN WLAN FOR MULTIMEDIA DATA 299-308

Z. A. Jaffery, Moinuddin, Munish Kumar

Abstract
Deployment of wireless local area networks (WLANs) is growing consistently and demanding the support of multimedia applications with acceptable quality of service (QoS). This is attracting the interest of researchers globally. Under the optimum QoS, a number of VoIP calls can be supported by a WLAN. Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) and Point Coordination Function (PCF), two MAC protocols specified in the IEEE 802.11 standard have upper bound on VoIP connections. Under DCF mode 12 calls and in 20 calls in PCF mode[1,2,3,4]. In this paper we are proposing an access media mechanism in which audio data is transmitted in PCF mode and best-effort traffic in DCF mode. In the proposed access media mechanism, polling list is dynamically updated so that only those stations are polled which have voice packets ready to transmit. We have proposed a multi-queued MAC architecture for the access point. We considered voice traffic in CBR mode. The simulation results show that the maximum number of VoIP calls supported by 802.11b is 26 and 14 when inter arrival time for voice packets is 20 ms and 14 ms respectively.


    32.

ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF LAND RESOURCES USING 309-314

REMOTE SENSING AND GIS: A CASE STUDY

S.S. Asadi, B.V.T.Vasantha Rao, M.V. Raju and M.Anji Reddy

Abstract
The human Activities are Constantly adding industrial, domestic and Agricultural wastes to the ground water reservoirs at an alarming rate . In the last few decades, parallel with rapidly developing technology, increase in population and urbanization we have been witnessing alarmed phenomena all over the world. Anthropogenic activities including generation and indiscriminate disposal of solid wastes and extensive use of fertilizers have resulted in increasing levels of air, water and soil pollution, changing land use patterns, decrease in arable land and other dominant problems. The thematic map of the study area is prepared from linearly enhanced fused data of IRS-ID PAN and LISS-III merged satellite imagery and Survey Of India (SOI) toposheets on 1:50,000 scale using visual interpretation technique and using AutoCad and Arc/Info GIS software forming the spatial database.


    33.

IPV6 DEPLOYMENT STATUS, THE SITUATION IN AFRICA AND WAY OUT 315-322

Agbaraji E.C., Opara F.K., and Aririguzo M.I.

Abstract
The number of internet connected devices is increasing terrifically, with each device assigned a unique Internet Protocol (IP) address at a time. Hence the expected problem of IPv4 address exhaustion in the near future called for a better and permanent solution, which is switching to IPv6. Adoption and deployment of IPv6 recorded a fast growth rate globally, though the slow growth rate recorded in Africa was suspected to be due to the poor capacity building and the level of the IPv6 awareness campaign in the region. It was concluded that the developmental strategies created to help in the deployment of IPv6, such as the global awareness campaign, was confirmed effective. Also the World IPv6 day provides a 24 hours experiment to uncover the challenges of the transition to IPv6 and to develop measures to resolve them.


    34.

STUDY AND REALIZATION OF DEFECTED GROUND STRUCTURES IN THE 323-330

PERSPECTIVE OF MICROSTRIP FILTERS AND OPTIMIZATION THROUGH ANN

Bhabani Sankar Nayak, Subhendu Sekhar Behera, Atul Shah

Abstract
Defected ground structures (DGS) have been developed to enhance different characteristics of many microwave devices. In this paper a Micro-strip low pass filter with Dumbbell Shaped Slot Defected Ground Structure (DGS) is designed. The response of the filter is analyzed with respect to variation in dimension of the DGS unit .The variation of dimensions of defects studied with their corresponding change in capacitance, inductance as well as frequency response. The defects dimensions are modeled with respect to frequency using the artificial neural network. Optimizing the convergence of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) classifiers is an important task to increase the speed and accuracy in the decision-making. The frequency response of the micro strip filter is modeled with respect to the variation in dimension of DGS using CST microwave studio. The dimensions are further optimized in order to achieve minimum error in frequency response. Incremental and online back propagation learning approach is followed in the training of neural network because of its learning mechanism based upon the calculated error and its ability to keep track of previous learning iteratively. The simulation results are compared with the results obtained through ANN and the designs are further optimized.


    35.

ANALYSIS OF DISCRETE & SPACE VECTOR PWM CONTROLLED HYBRID 331-341

ACTIVE FILTERS FOR POWER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT

Jarupula Somlal, Venu Gopala Rao Mannam

Abstract
It is known from the fact that Harmonic Distortion is one of the main power quality problems frequently encountered by the utilities. The harmonic problems in the power supply are caused by the non-linear characteristic based loads. The presence of harmonics leads to transformer heating, electromagnetic interference and solid state device mal-functioning. Hence keeping in view of the above concern, research has been carried out to mitigate harmonics. This paper presents an analysis and  control methods  for hybrid active power filter using Discrete Pulse Width Modulation and Space Vector  Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM) for Power Conditioning in distribution systems. The Discrete PWM has the function of voltage stability, and harmonic suppression. The reference current can be calculated by‘d-q’ transformation. In SVPWM technique, the Active Power Filter (APF) reference voltage vector is generated instead of the reference current, and the desired APF output voltage is generated by SVPWM. The THD will be decreased significantly by SVPWM technique than the Discrete PWM technique based Hybrid filters. Simulations are carried out for the two approaches by using MATLAB, it is observed that the %THD has been improved from 1.79 to 1.61 by the SVPWM technique.


    36.

COMPARISONS AND LIMITATIONS OF BIOHYDROGEN PRODUCTION 342-356

PROCESSES: A REVIEW

Karthic Pandu and Shiny Joseph

Abstract

Hydrogen gas can be produced by conventional methods such as thermo-chemical gasification, pyrolysis, solar gasification and supercritical conversion. Hydrogen productions through biological methods are an attractive and alternate method for the replacement of fossil fuel in future. In this review, the major biological processes discussed for hydrogen production are bio-photolysis of water by algae, dark fermentation, photo–fermentation of organic materials and the sequential dark and photo-fermentation processes. Major constraints in dark and photo-fermentative hydrogen production include the raw material cost, lower hydrogen yield and rate of hydrogen production. To overcome those constraints, intensive research works are strongly recommended to be carried out on the advancement of these processes. The review showed effective utilization of low cost substrate such as agricultural, food industry wastes and effluents such as diary industry wastewater for hydrogen production with inexpensive energy generation and simultaneous wastewater treatment. It reveals that the hydrogen yield could be even achieved greater with the effective pretreatment methods of inoculum and substrates. This review explores the recent status and developments that have been made to improve the hydrogen production particularly with pretreatment methods and gave an outline about the unit cost of various hydrogen production processes.


    37.

MORPHOMETRIC AND HYDROLOGICAL ANALYSIS AND MAPPING FOR 357-368

WATUT WATERSHED USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS TECHNIQUES

Babita Pal, Sailesh Samanta and D. K. Pal

Abstract

The study analyzes  six morphometric parameters namely absolute relief, relative relief, dissection index, average slope, drainage density and ruggedness index, for better understanding of hydrologic processes in a watershed. The advanced application of Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques have lead to estimation of surface runoff and soil loss based on different parameters. Topographical map and Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) satellite image are used for morphometric analysis. Land use/land cover, hydrologic soil characteristics, rainfall, curve number (CN) are used for surface runoff assessment using Soil Conservation Service (SCS) model. USLE (Universal Soil Loss Equation) model is used for soil loss estimation with the help of rainfall and runoff factor (R), soil erodibility factor (K), slope length and steepness factor (LS), crop management factor (C) and conservation practice factor (P). These parameters are obtained from monthly and annual rainfall data, soil data, topographic map, satellite image using RS and GIS techniques (with use of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) respectively. This experimental study is carried out on Watut watershed under Morobe province of Papua New Guinea. The Watut watershed encompasses an area of about 5410.74 sq km. The average drainage density of this watershed is computed at 0.5 km/sq km with the average slope measuring about 31%. The result indicates an average of 68.23% of total rainfall flowing out as surface runoff with a concomitant wearing away of about 6579914 tons/year (12.16 tons/ha/year) of eroded soil in the Watut watershed. Wall to wall (pixel wise) spatial mapping for the entire watershed is carried out using these results. The study underscores that the integrated  approach of SCS and USLE model with RS and GIS technologies have great potential for modeling of different hydrological parameters and producing risk maps in any watershed region.


     39.

PARAMETRIC STUDY OF A NOVEL STACKED PATCH ANTENNA 377-384

V. Rajya Lakshmi, M. Sravani, G.S.N.Raju

Abstract
An inverted stacked microstrip patch antenna with single-fed at 1.30 GHz for GPS applications is designed at L band using electromagnetic simulator WIPL-D. The radiation patterns of microstrip antennas depend upon parameters like width, length, resonant frequency and dielectric constant. In view of this, by varying the height of the air gap, feed position and dielectric constant of the patch, corresponding radiation pattern, near field and return loss are observed.


    40.

BIOMETRICS STANDARDS AND FACE IMAGE FORMAT FOR DATA 385-392

INTERCHANGE - A REVIEW

 

Nita M. Thakare  and V. M. Thakare

Abstract
A biometric system is essentially a pattern recognition system. It compares the feature set data against the set of templates. Initially the biometric data is acquired from the subject, and from the acquired data the feature sets are extracted, these feature sets are used for comparison. With the ever-growing use of biometrics, it is the utmost need to use standard biometric systems. The biometric standards simplifies otherwise complicated choices, enables large scale integration, promote longevity and enables interoperability of the biometric systems. ISO/IEC has developed the biometric standards for all modalities. The part-5 of it contains the Face-Image Format for Data Interchange. It defines specifically a standard scheme for codifying data, describing human faces within a compliant data-structure. In order to enable applications that run on a variety of devices, including those with limited resources and to improve face recognition accuracy; the specification describes not only the data format, but also additional requirements, namely: scene constraints; photographic properties; digital image attributes.


    41.

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF LOW-LATENCY ON DIFFERENT BANDWIDTH 393-400

AND GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATIONS WHILE USING CLOUD BASED APPLICATIONS

 Ajith Singh N.and M. Hemalatha

Abstract
Cloud computing, a approach of computing where scalable and elastic IT-related capabilities are provided as shared assorted services (IaaS, PaaS,SaaS, DaaS), metered by use, to customers using internet technologies built on top of diverse technologies like virtualisation, distributed computing, utility computing, and more recently networking, web infrastructure and software services. It represents a paradigm shift in how we think about our data, the role of our computing devices and on managing computing resources. Cloud computing comes with Zero latency so the application hosted on cloud computing will act just like desktop application. The speed of internet is main factor to avoid latency but internet speed is not same in all the geographical location. From the survey it’s found out that some latency occurs in different geographical location. Even different browser gives different latency. The  problem of latency or low bandwidth may be automatically solve in coming years as the speed of internet is changing day to day. If users are going to adopt cloud computing then user must think of internet speed which is available in mean time. The internet connection should be good enough to support cloud computing minimum requirement would be 1MPBS.


    42.

EVALUATION OF TEXTURAL FEATURE EXTRACTION FROM GRLM FOR 401-409

PROSTATE CANCER TRUS MEDICAL IMAGES

R.Manavalan and K.Thangavel

Abstract
Ultrasound imaging is one of the promising techniques for early detection of prostate cancer. There are five steps involved in processing the ultrasound images such as pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction, feature selection, and classification. In this paper, the Transrectal Ultrasound (TRUS) images are pre-processed with M3 filter. Then it is segmented by using DBSCAN clustering after applying morphological operators, in order to extort the prostate region. It is proposed to extract the features by using Gray Level Run Length Matrix (GLRLM) for different direction from the segmented region. To classify the images into benign or malignant, Support Vector Machine (SVM) is adapted to evaluate the performance of the proposed method through classification. Over 5500 digitized TRUS images of prostate are used for the experimental analysis.
The results obtained using the classification showed that texture features based on GLRLM by using combined directions  (è = {0º, 45º, 90º, 135º})  distinguish between malignant and benign on TRUS images, with highest accuracy 85% where as sensitivity and specificity of 82% and 100% respectively.


    43.

ANALYSIS AND MULTINOMIAL LOGISTIC REGRESSION MODELLING OF 410-418

WORK STRESS IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES IN KERALA, INDIA

K. Satheesh Kumar and G. Madhu

Abstract
This study examines the influence of factors responsible for work stress among the employees in the manufacturing industries in Kerala, India. The sample size of the subjects selected for the study consists of 75 Engineers, 110 Supervisors and 675 Workers in the selected   manufacturing industries in Kerala ,India. Seven factors were identified with the existing literatures, and in consultation with safety experts for the evaluation of work stress. The instrument developed by using these factors had validity, unidimensionality and reliability. The response rate was 81.3%. It is observed that existence the factors responsible for work stress among all the   categories of employees in these industries. The multinomial logistic regression model developed is found good in predicting the work stress in manufacturing industries.


    44.

AUDIO DENOISING USING WAVELET TRANSFORM 419-425

B. JaiShankar and K. Duraiswamy

Abstract
Noises present in communication channels are disturbing and the recovery of the original signals from the path without any noise is very difficult task. This is achieved by denoising techniques that remove noises from a digital signal. Many denoising technique have been proposed for the removal of noises from the digital audio signals. But the effectiveness of those techniques is less. In this paper, an audio denoising technique based on wavelet transformation is proposed. Denoising is performed in the transformation domain and the improvement in denoising is achieved by a process of grouping closer blocks. The technique exposes each and every finest details contributed by the set of blocks and also it protects the vital features of every individual block. The blocks are filtered and replaced in their original positions. The grouped blocks overlap each other and thus for every element a much different estimation is obtained. A technique based on this denoising strategy and its efficient implementation is presented in full detail. The implementation results reveal that the proposed technique achieves a state-of-the-art denoising performance in terms of both signal-to-noise ratio and audible quality.


    45.

HYBRID ACTIVE POWER FILTER USING FUZZY DIVIDING FREQUENCY 426-432

CONTROL METHOD

Bindu.V, SaiRam.I, and K.K. Vasishta Kumar

Abstract
This paper deals with a hybrid active power filter with injection circuit (IHAPF). It shows great promise in reducing harmonics and improving the power factor with a relatively low capacity active power filter. This paper concluded that the stability of the IHAPF based on detection supply current is superior to that of others. To minimize the capacity of IHAPF, an adaptive fuzzy dividing frequency-control method is proposed by analyzing the bode diagram, which consists of two control units: a generalized integrator control unit and fuzzy adjustor unit. The generalized integrator is used for dividing frequency integral control, while fuzzy arithmetic is used for adjusting proportional-integral coefficients timely. And the control method is generally useful and applicable to any other active filters. Compared to other IHAPF control methods, the adaptive fuzzy dividing frequency control shows the advantages of shorter response time and higher control precision. It is implemented in an IHAPF with a 100-kVA APF installed in a copper mill in Northern China. The simulation and experimental results show that the new control method is not only easy to be calculated and implemented, but also very effective in reducing harmonics.


    46.

MINIMUM LINING COST OF TRAPEZOIDAL ROUND CORNERED SECTION 433-436

OF CANAL

Syed Zafar Syed Muzaffar,  S. L. Atmapoojya,  D.K. Agarwal

Abstract
Economics and Environmental pressure require efficient use of water for irrigation purpose. To satisfy the Economics constrains in canal construction the total cost of section should be minimum which include cost of lining for minimizing the total cost of lined canal trapezoidal shape the Lagrangian multiplier technique is used. The total cost of lining is the sum of cost of lining on sides on curves and in the base. Radius of rounding can be provided in two ways 1) unbound radius case i.e. the radius of rounding remain constant and it predecided 2) Bound radius case i.e. the radius rounding depend on depth of flow. These two cases are only for design purpose of canal section. It is seen that cost of lining is less in case of bound radius case.


    47.

VOLTAGE CONTROL AND DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE OF POWER 437-442

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM USING STATCOM AND ITS COMPARISON WITH SVC

Amit Garg and Sanjai Kumar Agarwal

Abstract
This paper investigates the effects of Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) on voltage stability of a power system. This paper will discuss and demonstrate how STATCOM has successfully been applied to power system for effectively regulating system voltage. One of the major reasons for installing a STATCOM is to improve dynamic voltage control and thus increase system load ability. This paper presents modeling and simulation of STATCOM in MATLAB/Simulink. In this paper A STATCOM is used to regulate voltage in a power system. When system voltage is low the STATCOM generates reactive power (STATCOM capacitive). When system voltage is high it absorbs reactive power (STATCOM inductive). The STATCOM more effectively enhance the voltage stability and increase transmission capacity in a power system. In this paper comparison is also performed between SVC and STATCOM under fault condition and it is shown that STATCOM have the ability to provide more capacitive power during a fault over SVC. It is also shown that STATCOM exhibits faster response than SVC.


    48.

ASSOCIATION RULE MINING ALGORITHMS FOR HIGH DIMENSIONAL 443-454

DATA – A REVIEW

K.Prasanna and M.Seetha

Abstract

In this paper the association rule mining algorithms are discussed and demonstrated. Particularly, the problems of association rule mining on high dimensional data are investigated and comparison of popular association rules algorithms are presented.   The paper mainly focusing on the problem of curse of dimensionality associated with data bases and algorithms. To day there are several efficient algorithms that cope with the task of Association rule mining. Actually, these algorithms are less described in terms of dimensionality. In this paper, we described to day’s approaches pointing out the common aspect and differences. A comprehensive experimental study against different UCI data sets are evaluated and presented. It turns out that the run time behavior of the algorithms with regards to numerous dimensionalities, derived rules, and processing time similar to be expected. It was ascertained that as increase in the dimensionality of the databases and with varying support values, the run time performance is proven better and faster in CARPENTER, COBBLER and TD-Close algorithms.


    49.

ACHIEVING EFFICIENT LOAD BALANCING IN PEER TO PEER NETWORK 455-462

         Ritesh Dayama,Ranjeet Kagade,Kedar GhogaleComplaint Received removed till delibration

    50.

ANALYSIS AND SIMULATION OF SERIES FACTS DEVICES TO MINIMIZE 463-473

TRANSMISSION LOSS AND GENERATION COST

M. Balasubba Reddy, Y. P. Obulesh and S. Sivanaga Raju

Abstract
This paper presents the severity of over load index (SOL) technique to find the optimal location of FACTS controller to achieve optimal power flow solution. The proposed method estimates the SOL index of transmission line to locate the FACTS device. Main objective of optimal power flow is to minimize the overall cost function which includes total active and reactive power production cost under constraints. Among various FACTS devices thyristor controlled phase shifters (TCPST), thyristor controlled series compensator (TCSC) and static synchronous series compensators (SSSC) are considered to control active power flow through transmission line and also to reduce active power loss. Different operating conditions of the power system are considered for finding the optimal location of FACTS controllers. The proposed technique is an effective method for the optimal location of FACTS controllers.


    51.

MODELING AND SIMULATION OF THE PATCH ANTENNA BY USING A 474-484

BOND GRAPH APPROACH

Riadh Mehouachi, Hichem Taghouti, Sameh Khmailia and Abdelkader Mami

Abstract
Further to our own studies carried out previously on the application of the bond graph approach on antennas based on localized elements, we tried in the continuation of our research to devote our studies on the antennas based on distributed elements. For that purpose, we have chooses as first departure, a patch antenna of which we want to find its scattering parameters by our own and new methodology. So we can say that in this paper, we propose a new methodology to study a patch antenna by applying the bond graph approach and the scattering formalism. This study permits us on the one hand to determine and to simulate the scattering parameters (reflexion and transmission coefficients S11, S12, S21 and S22  ) of a patch antenna and on the other hand to modelling the incident and reflected wave propagation for all the points of this antenna by the bond graph approach.


    52.

DESIGN AND VERIFICATION ANALYSIS OF AVALON INTERRUPT 485-492

INTERFACE WITH COVERAGE REPORT

Mahesh Kumar Jha, Richa Sinha and Akhilesh Kumar

Abstract

Design is an accurate representation of the specification and is carried out at each step of the manufacturing process. The process of verification parallels the design creation process. Verification shows the correctness of the design, makes sure about  no bugs in the design and its functionality.The important part of verification process is coverage analysis;it gives idea that to what degree the source code of the DUT has been tested. Code coverage measures how thoroughly our tests exercised the “implementation” of the design specification, and not the verification plan. Functional Coverage is User specified and not automatic like code coverage. It is based on design specification/intent and not on implementation. Avalon interfaces are used to easily connect components in an FPGA in order to simplify system design. It defines the various Interfaces roles which are used in both high-speed streaming and memory-mapped applications. The Avalon bus is a simple bus architecture which makes the connection between on-chip processors and peripherals together into a SOPC. It is an interface that specifies the port connections between master and slave components, and also specifies the timing by which these components communicate. The Avalon Interrupt Interface is one of the roles of Avalon Interface, which allows the components to signal the events to other components.  In this paper, code coverage analysis in design is concluded using QuestaSim simulator and functional coverage analysis in verification is concluded using Riviera simulator.


    53.

CONCATENATION OF BCH CODE WITH SPACE TIME CODE A LOW SNR 493-500

APPROACH FOR COMMUNICATION OVER POWER LINES FOR SUBSTATION

AUTOMATION

Rajeshwari Itagi, Vittal K. P., U. Sripati

Abstract
 
A study of power line as communication medium for narrowband application is performed in the perspective of space time coding. The spatial diversity available in the naturally decoupled phases of the power line can be exploited for using power line as communication medium for narrowband application just as incase of fading channel of a wireless communication. In this paper, a study is performed to test the transmission of digital data using simulated power line. Time and frequency dependent transfer function of the power line is varied instantaneously during data transmission, which is a characteristic of the power line. Impulsive disturbance on the power line is modeled using Middleton class-A noise. BCH code is used as outer code to reduce the SNR requirement. Concatenation of BCH code with space time code is found to reduce the SNR requirement to have the carrier power within the regulatory limits.


    54.

UTILIZATION OF EXTRUSION AS AN ADVANCED MANUFACTURING 501-507

TECHNIQUE IN THE MANUFACTURE OF ELECTRIC CONTACTS

Virajit A. Gundale ,Vidyadhar M. Dandge
Abstract

It is common that each engineering assembly product has A,B and C class components which together comprises assembly. A class component has high contribution in product function, cost and profitability of the engineering enterprise. A special technical research is must for this class of components. Product assembly is another crucial function where all failures are coming on the surface. Where all components are to be available simultaneously to complete assembly. This is important stage because if component supply is interrupted assembly function stops. Many times the components cannot be supplied due to selection and use of traditional manufacturing techniques used at the time of sample lot submission. These short cuts taken during development phase are becoming hurdles at the time of commercial or bulk production of assembly. Selection of most suitable and advance techniques for manufacturing of all components   gives quality and quantity of all components and streamlines assembly functions. Keen approach towards manufacturing techniques eliminates quality and productivity problems which occur at the supply stage of the product. This also derives long term benefits such as customer satisfaction gain, product life cycle growth.


    55.

CONTROL AND PERFORMANCE OF A CASCADED H-BRIDGE MLI AS 508-519

STATCOM

M. Vishnu Prasad and K. Surya Suresh

Abstract

This paper presents a three-phase cascaded H-Bridge MLI as Static synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) intended for installation on industrial and utility power distribution systems. It proposes a control technique that devotes itself to meeting the demand of reactive power. To implement a separate control for the three phase dc-link voltages, the average active power in each phase can also be adjusted to a target value determined by the dc-link voltage control loop. Then, by forcing the converter neutral voltage to be equal to the counterpart of the equivalent power supply, the STATCOM can be decoupled into three single-phase systems and the line-to-neutral voltage of the equivalent power supply can be used as the input voltage to the corresponding phase leg. Accordingly dc-link voltage maintaining can be simultaneously achieved under unbalanced conditions.


    56.

IMAGE RETRIEVAL USING TEXTURE FEATURES EXTRACTED USING LBG, 520-531

KPE, KFCG, KMCG, KEVR WITH ASSORTED COLOR SPACES

 

H.B.Kekre, Sudeep D. Thepade, Tanuja K. Sarode, Shrikant P. Sanas

Abstract
This paper presents novel texture based content based image retrieval(CBIR) methods using six assorted color spaces i.e RGB, LUV, YCgCb, YIQ, YCbCr, YUV. For extracting texture feature Vector Quantization (VQ) algorithms like Linde Buzo Gray(LBG), Kekre’s Proportionate Error (KPE), Kekre’s Error Vector Rotation (KEVR), Kekre’s Median Codebook Generation (KMCG) and Kekre’s Fast Codebook Generation (KFCG) algorithms are used. The codebook generated from these algorithms act as the feature vector for CBIR system. Seven different codebook sizes varying  from 8x12 to 512x12 are generated in six color spaces and using five different VQ algorithms, so in all 210 (7x6x5) techniques are presented here. The proposed image retrieval techniques are tested on generic image database having 1000 images and is independent of the image size and rotation invariant. To test the performance of the proposed CBIR techniques Precision and Recall is used. From the results it is observed that KFCG gives best results with higher precision and recall values. Codebook size 128x12 gives best result in all codebook generation algorithms.


    57.

DEVELOPMENT OF A SIMPLE & LOW-COST INSTRUMENTATION SYSTEM 532-542

FOR REAL TIME VOLCANO MONITORING

Didik R. Santoso, Sukir Maryanto and A.Y. Ponco Wardoyo

Abstract
An instrumentation which is used to monitoring of volcano activities usually has a complex structure and expensive. This, may difficult not only in procurement of the device but also in terms of maintenance. Aim of this research is to develop a simple and inexpensive instrumentation system for online volcano monitoring. For this purpose, the instrumentation system is built upon two main units, i.e. Remote Terminal Unit (RTU) and Master Terminal Unit (MTU). The RTU is sensing unit, which includes seismic sensor module and weather sensor module. Both the sensor modules are equipped with a microcontroller based data acquisition system. The MTU is control and data logger unit. It is built based on PC, and installed application’s software for data logger and interface to the internet network, allowing users to access the volcano activity that was monitored by real time, from anywhere. The connection between MTU and RTU performed wirelessly using a digital radio transceiver. The RTU’s work function is fully controlled by the MTU. This system has been tested on laboratory scale and work well.


    58.

INTENSIFIED ELGAMAL CRYPTOSYSTEM (IEC) 543-551

Prashant Sharma, Amit Kumar Gupta, Sonal Sharma

Abstract
In 1985 a powerful and public-key scheme was produced by ElGamal. El-Kassar et al. and El-Kassar and Haraty modified the ElGamal  public-key encryption scheme from the domain of natural integers, Z, to two principal ideal domains, namely the domain of Gaussian integers, Z[i], and domain of the rings of polynomials over finite fields F[x], by extending arithmetic needed  for the modifications to these domains. In this paper we modified the classical ElGamal encryption/decryption algorithm which is based on the difficulty of discrete logarithm problem where it is straight forward to raise numbers to large powers but it is much harder to do the inverse computation of the discrete logarithm. Now, there are so many algorithms available for solving the discrete logarithm problem of small size numbers in a reasonable time. Two of the most popular algorithm is the baby-step/ giant-step algorithm and the pollard’s rho algorithm. So to improve security, we proposed a Intensified ElGamal Cryptosystem (IEC) to enhance the security for encrypting long messages and also secure against mathematical and brute-force attack as well as Low-Modulus and Known-Plaintext attack on ElGamal cryptosystem.. The security of this algorithm is based on the difficulty of solving the discrete logarithm problem and Integer factorization problem. This paper also presents comparison between IEC and ElGamal cryptosystem in respect of security and complexity.


    59.

A ZIGZAG-DELTA PHASE-SHIFTING TRANSFORMER AND THREE-LEG 552-563

VSC BASED DSTATCOM FOR POWER QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

R.Revathi and J.Ramprabu

Abstract
 In this paper, a new three-phase four-wire distribution static compensator (DSTATCOM) based on a Phase-Shifting transformer (PST) and a three-leg voltage source converter (VSC) is proposed for power quality improvement. The Zigzag Phase-Shifting transformer mitigates the circulating power flows in interconnected utilities and the three-leg VSC compensates harmonic current, reactive power and balances the load. The principle of PST is to take harmonics generated from separate sources, shift one source of harmonics 180º with respect to the other and then combine them together; this will result in cancellation. This type of transformer has patented built-in electromagnetic technology designed to remove high neutral current and the most harmful harmonics from the 3rd through 21st. The interesting aspect of such phase shifters is that despite their low MVA capacity, by controlling the phase shift, they exercise a significant real-power control. The insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) based VSC is supported by a capacitor and is controlled for the required compensation of the load current. The dc bus voltage of the VSC is regulated during varying load conditions. The performance of the three-phase four-wire DSTATCOM is validated using MATLAB software with its Simulink and power system blockset toolboxes.


    60.

MODELING AND SIMULATION OF NANOSENSOR ARRAYS FOR 564-577

AUTOMATED DISEASE DETECTION AND DRUG DELIVERY UNIT

S.M. Ushaa, Vivek Eswaran

Abstract
In this paper, the mathematical models required to describe the functionality of nanodevices have been reviewed. Based on these mathematical models sensor equivalent circuits have been developed. An experimental setup is developed to analyze the characteristics of IS Field Effect Transistor (ISFET), nanowire and nanosphere devices. The impact of geometrical properties on device performance is estimated based on the experimental setup. Settling time and surface analyte concentration graphs obtained using the experimental setup is used in designing a nanobio sensor for disease detection. Based on the test results, a mathematical model has been developed in Matlab to model nanodevices. Three different iterations of sensor models are carried out based on the results obtained curve fitting techniques are adopted to generalize the developed sensor model using Savitzky-Golay Filter (SG Filter). The sensors modeled can be used for automated drug detection and delivery unit. In this paper it is proposed to develop a methodology for integrating biosensor models from nanohub.org and Matlab. The model for nanowire based sensor may be developed using basic principles and can be characterized using experimental setup. Sensor array model consisting of 64 nanowires is proposed to develop to detect prostate cancer. A control unit that triggers the sensor array may be developed and can be used in measuring the concentration of analyte solution. The location of nanowire sensors on the 8 x 8 matrix can be distributed using Gaussian distribution function. A new sensor array consisting of planar sensor and nanowire sensor may be developed to increase the sensitivity of the system in detecting prostate cancer. Expert system based on feed forward neural network architecture may be designed and modeled for ovarian cancer classification. A two layered network consisting of sigmoid transfer function and purelin function may be designed. Optimum weights for the layers are to be identified using Back propagation Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and Principle Component Analysis (PCA) techniques are to be incorporated into the expert system that classifies the cancer cells based on significant features extracted. A Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller may be modeled to control the diffusion pump and monitoring of drug diffusion. The output of expert system should drive the PID control for drug diffusion. Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) implementation of neural network architecture and PID controller may be designed and developed for optimizing area, speed and power performances. The modules can be integrated to form the automated disease detection and drug delivery unit.
The developed sensor model for nanowires match the sensor models available from standard resources with less than 2% deviation. Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) antibody and Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) as biomarkers for detection of prostate cancer based on sensor array is built. The sensor array model achieves 91% efficiency and is superior compared with existing design. The expert system developed correctly classifies ovarian cancer 98% times, with only 2% error. The decision produced by the expert system drives PID controller to activate the diffusion pump, the PID controller has overshoot error of less than 12% with settling time less than 10ms. FPGA implementation of expert system operates at maximum frequency of 293 MHz occupies less than 148 slices when targeted on Virtex 4 FPGA. For real time disease detection and diagnosis, the developed system can be incorporated into a biochip.


    61.

MISSING BOUNDARY DATA RECONSTRUCTION BY AN ALTERNATING 578-586

ITERATIVE METHOD

Chakir Tajani and Jaafar Abouchabaka

Abstract
In this work, we consider the Cauchy problem for Laplace equation which is to complete the missing data on a part of the boundary from the over specified conditions on the other part. Among the existing method to solve this ill-posed problem, we find the iterative algorithm (KMF standard algorithm) proposed by Kozlov, Mazya and Fomin. This algorithm requires a large number of iterations to complete convergence. Therefore, we propose an alternating iterative algorithm (KMF developed algorithm) to ameliorate the accuracy of the solution and reduce the number of iterations needed to achieve convergence. This algorithm is inspired by the KMF standard algorithm and the numerical tests performed to study the influence of data problem on the convergence rate. The implementation of this algorithm is performed by the finite element method using the software Freefem. The numerical tests developed show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm since it allows to have more accurate results as well as reducing the number of iterations needed for convergence.


    62.

A  COMPREHENSIVE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF ROUTING PROTOCOL 587-593

FOR ADHOC NETWORK

Sachin Dahiya, Manoj Duhan, Vikram Singh

Abstract
Routing is always a challenging task in a mobile adhoc network. Several protocols have been proposed for adhoc network with different functionality. All the protocols have been designed to determine the routes between the communicating nodes based upon different criteria. Due to the movement of the nodes the topology of the adhoc network is not fixed and it poses a challenge for the routing protocol to provide a path from the source to destination in such a dynamic scenario. High mobility combined with the limited energy supply of the nodes affects the performance of the routing protocol. In this paper performance of three major routing protocols DSDV, DSR and AODV have been evaluated in different network condition. Protocols are also tested for energy consumed during packet transmission, network lifetime, average throughput, packet delivery fraction, end to end delay etc.


    63.

COMPARISON OF GA AND LQR TUNING OF STATIC VAR COMPENSATOR 594-601

FOR DAMPING OSCILLATIONS

Nuraddeen Magaji, Mukhtar F. Hamza, Ado Dan-Isa

Abstract
Static VAR Compensator (SVC) is added to the excitation system of a generator in order to enhance damping during low frequency oscillations. In this article Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) tuning approach and Genetic Algorithm (GA) are used to obtain supplementary controller parameters for oscillation damping. The performances of SVC without controller, SVC with LQR controller and SVC with GA controller are compared. Eleven bus two area four machine system is used for the study. The performance of the GA controller is found to be better than the LQR controller and without controller under different operating conditions. A comparison between the effect of SVC alone and the proposed GA and LQR is made.


    64.

INVERTED SINE PULSE WIDTH MODULATED THREE-PHASE CASCADED 602-610

MULTILEVEL INVERTER

R.Seyezhai

Abstract
MultiLevel Inverter (MLI) has been recognized as an attractive topology for high voltage DC-AC conversion. This paper addresses an Inverted Sine PWM (ISPWM) technique to control the seven- level asymmetric cascaded multilevel inverter. The proposed switching technique enhances the fundamental component of the output voltage and generates lower total harmonic distortion in comparison with the conventional triangular based multicarrier PWM techniques. A detailed study of the proposed modulation technique is carried out through MATLAB /SIMULINK. Gating signals are generated using FPGA Spartan processor. A prototype of three-phase asymmetric cascaded MLI is developed to verify the theoretical results.


    65.

ON THE SUNSPOT TIME SERIES PREDICTION USING JORDON ELMAN 611-621

ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK (ANN)

Rohit R. Deshpande and Athar Ravish Khan

Abstract
 
In this paper, multi step ahead prediction of monthly sunspot real time series are carried out. This series is highly chaotic in nature [7]. This paper compares performance of proposed Jordan Elman Neural Network with TLRNN (Time lag recurrent neural network), and RNN (Recurrent neural network) for multi-step ahead (1, 6, 12, 18, 24) predictions. It is seen that the proposed neural network model clearly outperforms TLRNN(Time lag recurrent neural network), and RNN(Recurrent neural network) in various performance measures such as MSE (Mean square error), NMSE (Normalized mean square error) and r (correlation coefficient) on testing as well as training data set for 1,6,12,18,and 24 months ahead prediction of sunspot time series. Parameters are calculated by using software, “Neurosolution 5.0”. Neurosolution is an object oriented environment for designing, prototyping, simulating, and deploying artificial neural network (ANN) solutions [26].


    66.

SESSION DATA PROTECTION USING TREE-BASED DEPENDENCY 622-631

G. Shruthi, Jayadev Gyani, R. Lakshman Naik, G. Sireesh Reddy

Abstract
Web applications have become very popular in nowadays.  Web applications can be error prone and easily exploited by attackers, because of the implementation vulnerabilities.  Securing web applications against implementation vulnerabilities is very important. Existing security solutions do not provide adequate support to protect web applications against broken session data dependencies in this paper we focus on one specific type of implementation vulnerability, namely broken dependencies on session data along with session data dependent vulnerabilities.  This can be lead to a variety of erroneous behavior at runtime.  This paper shows how to guarantee the absence of runtime errors due to broken session data dependencies. The proposed solution provides the tree-based dependency to prove no-broken-data-dependencies property.  A framework named PP4Wap (provable protection for web application) which will increase the reliability and security of data-centered web applications.


    67.

ESTIMATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF PROSODIC TO IMPROVE THE 632-639

QUALITY OF THE ARABIC SYNTHETIC SPEECH

Abdelkader CHABCHOUB & Adnen CHERIF

Abstract
The prosody modeling has been extensively applied in speech synthesis. This is simply because there is an obvious need for every speech synthesis system to generate prosodic properties of speech, for a natural and intelligible synthetic speech. This paper introduces a new technique for the prediction of a deterministic prosodic target at an early stage which relies on probabilistic models of F0 contour and may predict the duration. This paper, also, proposes a method that searches for the optimal unit sequence by maximizing a joint likelihood at both segmental and prosodic levels. This method has successfully been implemented in the analysis corpus for developing the Arabic prosody database
which itself is the input of the Arabic speech synthesizer. This paper, also, shows a drastic improvement in the Arabic prosodic quality through extensive objective and subjective evaluation.


    68.

INTEGRATION OF CONTROL CHARTS AND DATA MINING FOR PROCESS 640-648

CONTROL AND QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

E.V.Ramana and P. Ravinder Reddy

Abstract
Controlling the quality of materials, components, batches, products and assemblies during the course of manufacture is probably the most popularly recognized Quality Control activity. A charting and pattern recognition tool has been developed using Visual Basic and MS-Excel to automate the drawing of control charts. This can also enable better visualization of process data and provide automated recognition of basic unnatural patterns responsible for process to go out of control. Data mining has emerged as an important tool in extracting the knowledge from process databases. An out of control condition can trigger an appropriate data mining technique if any unnatural pattern is found in any control chart for a particular quality characteristic of any stage of the process. Process data can be analyzed by independent data mining technique to discover   hidden patterns in the parameters that control the manufacturing process to improve the quality of products. Expert system database of the organization may be updated by the extracted knowledge from various stages of the process. An algorithm shall be developed that can control input parameters to various stages  of the process so as to achieve its over all performance by making use of comprehensive expert system database of the organization along with the integration of control charts and data mining.


    69.

BINS APPROACH TO IMAGE RETRIEVAL USING STATISTICAL PARAMETERS 649-659

BASED ON HISTOGRAM PARTITIONING OF    R, G, B PLANES

 

H. B. Kekre and Kavita Sonawane

Abstract
 In this paper we have proposed a novel technique to retrieve the images from large image databases based on the spatial contents of the image to extract the low level features from it for CBIR. In this work image is separated into 3 planes and for each plane we have calculated the histogram which is partitioned into three equal parts to obtain the 27 bins. These bins are holding the spatial-color information of the image in various forms which is generating the different types of the feature vector databases. Three different set of bins are designed to be used as feature vectors containing the  total R,G, and B intensities, in R, G and B bins respectively, second form is containing the mean of R,G and B and third is holding standard deviation of R, G and B values in R, G, B bins respectively. This leads to generation of three feature vector databases where size of each feature vector in all databases is 27. Experimentation includes comparison of 100 query images with 1000 database images (Augmented Wang database) using two similarity measures named Euclidean distance and Absolute distance. Results obtained for three feature databases are compared based on the similarity measures reflecting the performance variations of different approaches used. These results are then analyzed and refined using three criteria in this work named Criterion1: Strong, Criterion2: Average and Criterion3: Weak. It has been observed in our results that bins holding standard deviation of R, G and B intensities performing  better among all three approaches and refined results using cireterion3 giving very good results as compared to other two.


    70.

ADAPTIVE ALGORITHM FOR CALIBRATION OF ARRAY COEFFICIENTS 660-667

K. Ch. Sri Kavya, B. V. Raj Gopala Rao, Gopala Krishna.N, J. Supriyanka,

J.V.Suresh, Kota Kumar, Habibulla Khan, Fazal Noor Basha

Abstract
Phased array antennas are deployed in electronic systems where high beam directivity and/or electronic beam scanning is desired in applications ranging from radar systems to smart antennas in wireless communication where errors such as random and/or correlated fluctuations present in the excitation coefficients of a phased array can degrade its performance. The errors due to random environmental changes, mechanical variations, assembly inaccuracies, mutual coupling effects and mistune or failure of amplifiers and phase shifters etc may cause undesirable effects such as decrease in directivity, increase in side lobes and steering the beam in wrong direction. In this paper, an adaptive algorithm for the excitation of coefficients of the phased array is demonstrated. Here a linear array is considered and the knowledge of the reference signal generated by the desired array at the near-field sensors is assumed and the fluctuations in the coefficients of the actual array are corrected by means of a gradient based least mean square adaptive algorithm.
Requirements for the algorithm to converge, its performance without receiver noise and the effects of the dither parameters are studied.

    71. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CATALYSTS CONTAINING 668-676
MOLYBDENUM AND TUNGSTEN AND THEIR APPLICATION IN PARAFFIN
ISOMERIZATION
Aoudjit Farid

Abstract
The development of new catalysts for normal alkanes isomerization reveals a big importance. Three series of catalysts were prepared by using sol-gel method, using different metal concentration and in two different pH (acid and basic).The first series contains molybdenum, the second contains tungsten and the third contains the two metals (molybdenum and tungsten).The catalysts were characterized by several techniques; the obtained results show that the catalysts prepared in basic pH have a surfaces areas and porous volumes higher than those prepared in acid pH. In order to evaluate the catalytic performances of prepared catalysts, we carried out the catalytic tests with light naphtha (C5, C6) isomerization. The obtained results show that the best conversions are obtained with catalysts prepared into pH basic.  The octane numbers of the obtained products (isomerate) are high compared to naphtha. The addition of the obtained products (isomerate) into the pool gasoline allows on the one hand, to obtain gasolines with high octane numbers which respect the environmental standards, and on the other hand, the possibility of developing the light fractions (C5 - C6) resulting from the crude oil distillation unit and condensed split distillation.


    72.

A Review Paper on Design and Synthesis of Two-Stage CMOS Op-Amp 677-688
Amana Yadav
Abstract

This paper presents a well defined method for the design of a two-stage CMOS operational amplifier. The OPAMP which has been designed is two stage CMOS OPAMP followed by an output buffer. The op-amp which has been designed, exhibits a unity gain frequency of 14MHz and a gain of 77.25dB with phase margin. A new technique which takes into account the effect of transfer function zeros, which are traditionally neglected, has been proposed. The simplest frequency compensation technique employs the Miller effect by connecting a compensation capacitor across the high-gain stage. The compensation method results in higher unity gain bandwidth under the same load condition. Both the theoretical calculations and computer aided simulation analysis have been given in detail. Design has been carried out in Mentor graphics tool. Simulation results have been verified using Model Sim Eldo and Design Architect IC. The simulation results in a tsmc 0.35um CMOS process from a 5V voltage supply demonstrate the designed has a gain 77.25dB.



Note: Article No. 38 is removed by the editor